WORD BY LETTER : English CROSSWORD SOLVER and others things ...
Words starting with : 
Words ending  with : 
Ledger Nano S - The secure hardware wallet
Find a definition : 

definition of the word Wiktionary:Reconstructed_terms

by the Wiktionnary

IC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> Wiktionary:Reconstructed terms - Wiktionary

Wiktionary:Reconstructed terms

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
Application-certificate Gion.svg This is a Wiktionary policy, guideline or common practices page. It should not be modified without a VOTE.

Reconstructed terms are words, roots, and phrases which are not directly attested in their respective languages, but have been reconstructed by linguists through etymological evidence. They are conventionally denoted with an asterisk (*) at the start of the word, such as in the reconstructed root *bʰer-.


Reconstructed forms can potentially occur in any language, but they are primarily found in ancient or extinct languages which later languages or dialects are derived from. Most reconstructions are based on comparative linguistics, a field that analyzes regular and systematic patterns of changes (such as phonetic alterations) in languages to compare words and grammatical systems in distinct but related languages.

For example, the Spanish word diente, Italian word dente, French word dent, and Portuguese word dente all mean "tooth" in their respective languages, and, being Romance languages, are all ultimately derived from Latin, where the word for tooth is dens (genitive dentis). Based on the similarities between the Romance language derivatives and on similar changes in other words, it is possible to reconstruct the Vulgar Latin word *dente (derived from the accusative case dentem, when final /m/ was eroded in Latin) as the intermediary step between Latin and its Spanish, Italian, French, and Portuguese derivatives. Thus, reconstructed forms like *dente are key to both understanding the ultimate etymology of countless words in all languages, and to determining the form and pronunciation of words that are not attested in any surviving writings (often either because the respective language had no alphabet, as is the case with Proto-Germanic, or because the language was used in common speech rather than writing, as is the case with Vulgar Latin). (Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004). Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1405103167.)

The most ancient reconstructions go further still; based on systematic and consistent similarities between dozens of different languages and language groups, it is possible to reconstruct words from languages that had no written language at all ("reconstructed languages"), such as Proto-Germanic, Proto-Indo-European, and Proto-Semitic. Like "intermediary" reconstructions, reconstructed words in these languages are based on comparing words in numerous distantly-related languages. For example, by comparing such forms as English seven, Lithuanian septyni, Hittite šipta-, Latin septem, Oscan seften, Old Prussian septīnjai, Sanskrit सप्त ("sapta"), Tocharian A ṣpät, Gothic 𐍃𐌹𐌱𐌿𐌽 ("sibun"), and dozens of others, all of which mean "seven" in their respective languages, linguists have reconstructed the Proto-Indo-European numeral *septm̥ with reasonable certainty, despite the lack of written records at the time when this word would have been spoken, around 4000–3000 BC.

Dictionaries that make thorough use of reconstructed forms include The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, which has especially detailed etymological information on Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Semitic reconstructed roots that have English-language derivatives.

Because of their very nature, reconstructed forms are not directly attested in any written work, but are the result of etymological analysis and research into later, attested words. However, though the field of reconstructed linguistics is the home of many controversies and disagreements, there are nonetheless a large number of reconstructed words which have achieved broad consensus among expert linguists, and also a number which there is strong evidence and support for the existence of, but which the exact form of is disputed. Because of this characteristic ambiguity of reconstructed words, it is vitally important that all Wiktionary pages dealing with reconstructions cite reliable, authoritative sources supporting the usage of the forms provided. Without such citations, it is very possible for original research and inconsistencies to creep into such pages.

Which citation style is to be used is up to the discretion of individual editors; this page provides an example of <ref></ref> style in the above section, demonstrating one way to clearly denote the source of reconstructions, whether they be dictionaries, textbooks, or linguistic treatises. By making thorough and uncompromising use of references for all pages dealing with reconstructions, and by excluding (or temporarily moving to the Talk page) any disputed information for which no source has yet been found, it is possible for Wiktionary to keep its standards for reconstructed terms just as high as they are for attested ones, if not even higher.

Note that in cases where different reliable references disagree over a reconstructed term, both references should usually be provided, even if only to note in some cases, for the sake of avoiding ambiguity, that a certain older form is now considered defunct. Pages should generally be named after whichever form has the broadest support among experts in the field, without Wiktionary weighing in on which form is more or less accurate; variants and disputed forms can then be addressed in great detail within the text of the pages themselves.

All reconstructed terms with entries go in the Wiktionary Appendix: namespace, such as in the page Appendix:Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ for *ḱwon- (lemmatized to nominative singular). They do not meet the criteria for inclusion in the main namespace. Redirects from the main namespace to these appendix entries are not permitted. (Redirects between the Appendix entries are permitted.) Note that "root" or "noun" etc. is not part of the page name.

Templates {{reconstructed}} or {{PIE entry}} should be used in these entries.

The layout of the entries is not required to conform to WT:ELE. (In particular, the L3 header "Root" is useful.)

Note this is meant to cover terms in reconstructed languages. A Latin reconstruction should be clearly marked as a reconstruction, but goes in the main namespace as any other Latin term would, following normal rules for inclusion.

References to terms in reconstructed languages must use template {{proto}}. This permits identification of all of the etymology sections which refer to reconstructed terms. The links to the Appendix: entries are automatically generated. If these entries were to be moved later, the template can be changed, rather than all of the Etymology sections.


Definition from Wiktionary
Content avaible with GNU Free Documentation License

Powered by php Powered by MySQL Optimized for Firefox