Module:category tree/poscatboiler/data/lemmas

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local labels = {}
local handlers = {}

labels["lemmas"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} [[Wiktionary:Lemmas|lemmas]], categorized by their part of speech.",
	fundamental = "Fundamental",
	parents = {{template = "langcatboiler", sort = "  "}},
}

labels["abstract verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} abstract verbs of motion whose motion is multidirectional (as opposed to unidirectional) or indirect, or whose action is repeated or in a series, instead of being a single, completed action. Abstract verbs are always imperfective in aspect, even with prefixes that are normally associated with the perfective aspect.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["action nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns denoting action of a verb or verbal root that it is derived from.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["act-related adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that indicate the motive or other background information for an action.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["active verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that indicate an activity",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["adjective concords"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} concords that are prefixed to adjective stems.",
	parents = {"concords"},
}

labels["adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that give attributes to nouns, extending their definitions.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["adverbial accusatives"] = {
	description = "Accusative case-forms in {{{langname}}} used as adverbs.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that modify clauses, sentences and phrases directly.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["affixes"] = {
	description = "Morphemes attached to existing {{{langname}}} words.",
	parents = {"morphemes"},
}

labels["agent nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that denote an agent that performs the action denoted by the verb from which the noun is derived.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["ambitransitive verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that may or may not direct actions, occurrences or states to grammatical objects.",
	parents = {"verbs", "transitive verbs", "intransitive verbs"},
}

labels["animal commands"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} words used to communicate with animals.",
	parents = {"interjections"},
}

-- This category should be used particularly in languages that have
-- grammatical distinctions related to animals, such as Ukrainian.
labels["animal nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that refer to animals.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["animate nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that refer to humans or animals.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["animate verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that refer to humans or animals.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["articles"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that indicate and specify nouns.",
	parents = {"determiners"},
}

labels["aspect adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that express [[w:Grammatical aspect|grammatical aspect]], describing the flow of time in relation to a statement.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["augmentative nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that are derived from a base noun to convey big size or big intensity.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["auxiliary verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that provide additional conjugations for other verbs.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["biaspectual verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that can be both imperfective and perfective.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["causative verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that express causing actions or states rather than performing or being them directly. Use this only for separate verbs: causative forms that are part of the inflection of verbs have their own category (see [[:Category:Verb causative forms by language]]).",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["circumfixes"] = {
	description = "Affixes attached to both the beginning and the end of {{{langname}}} words, together as single units.",
	parents = {"morphemes"},
}

labels["circumpositions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adpositions that appear on both sides of their objects.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["class 1 strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Verbs where the [[ablaut]] vowel was followed by ''-y-'' in Proto-Indo-European.",
	parents = {{name = "strong verbs", sort = "1"}},
}

labels["class 1 weak verbs"] = {
	description = "Weak verbs of the first class.",
	parents = {{name = "weak verbs", sort = "1"}},
}

labels["class 2 strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Verbs where the [[ablaut]] vowel was followed by ''-w-'' in Proto-Indo-European.",
	parents = {{name = "strong verbs", sort = "2"}},
}

labels["class 2a strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Verbs where the [[ablaut]] vowel was *eu in Proto-Germanic.",
	parents = {{name = "class 2 strong verbs", sort = "1"}},
}

labels["class 2b strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Verbs where the [[ablaut]] vowel was *ū in Proto-Germanic.",
	parents = {{name = "class 2 strong verbs", sort = "2"}},
}

labels["class 2 weak verbs"] = {
	description = "Weak verbs of the second class.",
	parents = {{name = "weak verbs", sort = "2"}},
}

labels["class 3 weak verbs"] = {
	description = "Weak verbs of the third class.",
	parents = {{name = "weak verbs", sort = "3"}},
}

labels["class 3 strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Verbs where the [[ablaut]] vowel was followed by a [[consonant cluster]] in Proto-Indo-European.",
	parents = {{name = "strong verbs", sort = "3"}},
}

labels["class 3a strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Verbs where the [[consonant cluster]] begins with a nasal consonant.",
	parents = {{name = "class 3 strong verbs", sort = "1"}},
}

labels["class 3b strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Verbs where the [[consonant cluster]] begins with a lateral consonant or velar fricative.",
	parents = {{name = "class 3 strong verbs", sort = "2"}},
}

labels["class 3c strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Verbs where the [[consonant cluster]] begins with a rhotic consonant.",
	parents = {{name = "class 3 strong verbs", sort = "3"}},
}

labels["class 4 strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Verbs where the [[ablaut]] vowel was followed by a [[sonorant]] (''m'', ''n'', ''l'', ''r'') but no other consonant in Proto-Indo-European.",
	parents = {{name = "strong verbs", sort = "4"}},
}

labels["class 4 weak verbs"] = {
	description = "Weak verbs of the fourth class.",
	parents = {{name = "weak verbs", sort = "4"}},
}

labels["class 5 strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Verbs where the [[ablaut]] vowel was followed by [[consonant]] other than a [[sonorant]] in Proto-Indo-European.",
	parents = {{name = "strong verbs", sort = "5"}},
}

labels["class 6 strong verbs"] = {
	description = "The Proto-Indo-European origin of this class is not securely known. It contains verbs with the stem vowel ''-a-'', except those where it is followed by a sonorant and another consonant (this combination was considered a diphthong in PIE and therefore belonged to class 7).",
	parents = {{name = "strong verbs", sort = "6"}},
}

labels["class 7 strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Verbs that retained their reduplication in the past tense in Proto-Germanic.",
	parents = {{name = "strong verbs", sort = "7"}},
}

labels["class 7a strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Class 7 strong verbs where the root vowel was ''*ai'' in Proto-Germanic, analogous to class 1.",
	parents = {{name = "class 7 strong verbs", sort = "a"}},
}

labels["class 7b strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Class 7 strong verbs where the root vowel was ''*au'' in Proto-Germanic, analogous to class 2.",
	parents = {{name = "class 7 strong verbs", sort = "b"}},
}

labels["class 7c strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Class 7 strong verbs where the root vowel was ''*a'' followed by a [[consonant cluster]] in Proto-Germanic, analogous to class 3.",
	parents = {{name = "class 7 strong verbs", sort = "c"}},
}

labels["class 7d strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Class 7 strong verbs where the root vowel was ''*ē'' in Proto-Germanic.",
	parents = {{name = "class 7 strong verbs", sort = "d"}},
}

labels["class 7e strong verbs"] = {
	description = "Class 7 strong verbs where the root vowel was ''*ō'' in Proto-Germanic.",
	parents = {{name = "class 7 strong verbs", sort = "e"}},
}

labels["classifiers"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that classify nouns according to their meanings.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["clitics"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} morphemes that function as independent words, but are always attached to another word.",
	parents = {"morphemes"},
}

labels["collective nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that indicate groups of related things or beings, without the need of grammatical pluralization.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["combining forms"] = {
	description = "Forms of {{{langname}}} words that do not occur independently, but are used when joined with other words.",
	parents = {"morphemes"},
}

labels["common nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that display grammatical relations associated with male or female beings.",
	parents = {"nouns by gender"},
}

labels["comparative-only adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that are only used in their comparative forms.",
	parents = {"adjectives"},
}

labels["concords"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prefixes attached to words to show agreement with a noun or pronoun.",
	parents = {"prefixes"},
}

labels["concrete verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} concrete verbs refer to a verbal aspect in verbs of motion that is unidirectional (as opposed to multidirectional), a definitely directed motion, or a single, completed action (instead of a repeated action or series of actions). Concrete verbs may be either imperfective or perfective.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["conjunctions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that connect words, phrases or clauses together.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["conjunctive adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that connect two independent clauses together.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["continuative verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that express continuing action.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["control verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that take multiple arguments, one of which is another verb. One of the control verb's arguments is syntactically both an argument of the control verb and an argument of the other verb.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["cooperative verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that indicate cooperation",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["coordinating conjunctions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} conjunctions that indicate equal syntactic importance between connected items.",
	parents = {"conjunctions"},
}

labels["copulative verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that may take adjectives as their complement.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["countable nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that can be quantified directly by numerals.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["counters"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that combine with numerals to express quantity of nouns.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["defective adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that lack one or more forms in their declensions.",
	parents = {"adjectives", "irregular adjectives"},
}

labels["defective verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that lack one or more forms in their conjugations.",
	parents = {"verbs", "irregular verbs"},
}

labels["definite nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that are inherently definite and have definite concord.",
	parents = {"nouns by inflection type"},
}

labels["definite pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that are inherently definite and have definite concord.",
	parents = {"pronouns"},
}

labels["degree adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that express a particular degree to which the word they modify applies.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["demonstrative adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that refer to nouns, comparing them to external references.",
	parents = {"adjectives", {name = "demonstrative pro-forms", sort = "adjectives"}},
}

labels["demonstrative adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that refer to other adverbs, comparing them to external references.",
	parents = {"adverbs", {name = "demonstrative pro-forms", sort = "adverbs"}},
}

labels["denominal verbs"] = { -- in [[Appendix:Glossary]]; "denominative" more frequent?
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that derive from nouns.",
	parents = { "verbs" },
}

labels["demonstrative determiners"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} determiners that refer to nouns, comparing them to external references.",
	parents = {"determiners", {name = "demonstrative pro-forms", sort = "determiners"}},
}

labels["demonstrative pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that refer to nouns, comparing them to external references.",
	parents = {"pronouns", {name = "demonstrative pro-forms", sort = "pronouns"}},
}

labels["deponent verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that have active meanings but are not conjugated in the active voice.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["derivational prefixes"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prefixes that are used to create new words.",
	parents = {"prefixes"},
}

labels["derivational suffixes"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} suffixes that are used to create new words.",
	parents = {"suffixes"},
}

labels["derivative verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that are derived from nouns and adjectives.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["desiderative verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs with the following morphology: verbal root xxx + [[desiderative]] suffix, and the following semantics: to wish to do the action xxx.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["determinatives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that indicate the general class to which the following logogram belongs.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["determiners"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that narrow down, within the conversational context, the referent of following noun.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["diminutiva tantum"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns or noun senses that are mostly or exclusively used in the diminutive form.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["diminutive adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that are derived from a base word to convey endearment, small size or small intensity.",
	parents = {"adjectives"},
}

labels["diminutive adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that are derived from a base word to convey endearment, small size or small intensity.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["diminutive nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that are derived from a base word to convey endearment, small size or small intensity.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["diminutive numerals"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} numerals that are derived from a base word to convey endearment or to emphasize a small quantity.",
	parents = {"numerals"},
}

labels["diminutive prefixes"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prefixes that are added to a base word to convey endearment, small size or small intensity.",
	parents = {"derivational prefixes"},
}

labels["diminutive proper nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} proper nouns that are derived from a base word to convey endearment, small size or small intensity.",
	parents = {"proper nouns"},
}

labels["diminutive pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that are derived from a base word to convey endearment, small size or small intensity.",
	parents = {"pronouns"},
}

labels["diminutive suffixes"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} suffixes that are added to a base word to convey endearment, small size or small intensity.",
	parents = {"derivational suffixes"},
}

labels["diminutive verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that are derived from a base word to convey endearment, small size or small intensity.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["discourse particles"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} particles that manage the flow and structure of discourse.",
	parents = {"particles"},
}

labels["ditransitive verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that indicate actions, occurrences or states of two grammatical objects simultaneously, one direct and one indirect.",
	parents = {"verbs", "transitive verbs"},
}

labels["doubly irregular verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs whose past stems and present stems differ as well as their perfective and imperfective stems.",
	parents = {"verbs", "verbs by inflection type"},
}

labels["dualia tantum"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that are mostly or exclusively used in the dual form.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["duration adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that express duration in time.",
	parents = {"time adverbs"},
}

labels["ergative verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} intransitive verbs that become causatives when used transitively.",
	parents = {"verbs", "intransitive verbs", "transitive verbs"},
}

labels["elative adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that express attributes in a relatively higher degree, or in the highest possible degree.",
	parents = {"adjectives"},
}

labels["enclitics"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} clitics that attach to the preceding word.",
	parents = {"clitics"},
}

labels["endearing adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that are derived from a base word to convey endearment (as opposed to small size or intensity).",
	parents = {"adjectives"},
}

labels["endearing nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that are derived from a base word to convey endearment (as opposed to small size or intensity).",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["feminine nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that display grammatical relations associated with female beings.",
	parents = {"nouns by gender"},
}

labels["feminine proper nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} proper nouns that display grammatical relations associated with female beings.",
	parents = {"proper nouns"},
}

labels["feminine suffixes"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} suffixes that display grammatical relations associated with female beings.",
	parents = {"noun-forming suffixes"},
}

labels["focus adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that indicate [[w:Focus (linguistics)|focus]] within the sentence.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["frequency adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that express repetition with a certain frequency or interval.",
	parents = {"time adverbs"},
}

labels["frequentative verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that express repeated action.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["general pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that refer to all persons, things, abstract ideas and their characteristics.",
	parents = {"pronouns"},
}

labels["generational moieties"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} moieties that alternate every generation.",
	parents = {"moieties"},
}

labels["ideophones"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that evoke an idea, especially a sensation or impression, with a sound.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["imperfective verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that express actions considered as ongoing or continuous, as opposed to completed events.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["impersonal verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that do not indicate actions, occurrences or states of any specific grammatical subject.",
	parents = {"verbs", "defective verbs"},
}

labels["inanimate nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that refer to inanimate objects (not humans or animals).",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["inanimate verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that refer to inanimate objects (not humans or animals).",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["inchoative verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that indicate that an action is soon to begin.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["indeclinable adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that do not display additional grammatical relations by means of declension.",
	parents = {"adjectives by inflection type"},
}

labels["indeclinable nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that do not display additional grammatical relations by means of declension.",
	parents = {"nouns by inflection type"},
}

labels["indeclinable numerals"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} numerals that do not display additional grammatical relations by means of declension.",
	parents = {"numerals by inflection type"},
}

labels["indeclinable participles"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} participles that do not display additional grammatical relations by means of declension.",
	parents = {"participles by inflection type"},
}

labels["indefinite adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that refer to unspecified adjective meanings.",
	parents = {"adjectives", {name = "indefinite pro-forms", sort = "adjectives"}},
}

labels["indefinite adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that refer to unspecified adverbial meanings.",
	parents = {"adverbs", {name = "indefinite pro-forms", sort = "adverbs"}},
}

labels["indefinite determiners"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} determiners that designate an unidentified noun.",
	parents = {"determiners", {name = "indefinite pro-forms", sort = "determiners"}},
}

labels["indefinite pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that refer to unspecified nouns.",
	parents = {"pronouns", {name = "indefinite pro-forms", sort = "pronouns"}},
}

labels["infixes"] = {
	description = "Affixes inserted inside {{{langname}}} words.",
	parents = {"morphemes"},
}

labels["inflectional prefixes"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prefixes that are used as inflectional beginnings in noun, adjective or verb paradigms.",
	parents = {"prefixes"},
}

labels["inflectional suffixes"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} suffixes that are used as inflectional endings in noun, adjective or verb paradigms.",
	parents = {"suffixes"},
}

labels["interfixes"] = {
	description = "Affixes used to join two {{{langname}}} words or morphemes together.",
	parents = {"morphemes"},
}

labels["interjections"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that express emotions, sounds, etc. as exclamations.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["interrogative adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that indicate questions.",
	parents = {"adjectives", {name = "interrogative pro-forms", sort = "adjectives"}},
}

labels["interrogative adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that indicate questions.",
	parents = {"adverbs", {name = "interrogative pro-forms", sort = "adverbs"}},
}

labels["interrogative determiners"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} determiners that indicate questions.",
	parents = {"determiners", {name = "interrogative pro-forms", sort = "determiners"}},
}

labels["interrogative particles"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} particles that indicate questions.",
	parents = {"particles", {name = "interrogative pro-forms", sort = "particles"}},
}

labels["interrogative pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that indicate questions.",
	parents = {"pronouns", {name = "interrogative pro-forms", sort = "pronouns"}},
}

labels["intransitive verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that don't require any grammatical objects.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["irregular elative adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} elative adjectives that follow non-standard patterns of inflection.",
	parents = {"adjectives by inflection type"},
}

labels["iterative verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that express the repetition of an event.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["location adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that indicate location.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["masculine and feminine nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that display grammatical relations associated with male and female beings, depending on context or usage.",
	parents = {"nouns by gender"},
}

labels["masculine and feminine proper nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} proper nouns that display grammatical relations associated with male and female beings, depending on context or usage.",
	parents = {"proper nouns"},
}

labels["masculine nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that display grammatical relations associated with male beings.",
	parents = {"nouns by gender"},
}

labels["masculine proper nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} proper nouns that display grammatical relations associated with male beings.",
	parents = {"proper nouns"},
}

labels["masculine suffixes"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} suffixes that display grammatical relations associated with male beings.",
	parents = {"noun-forming suffixes"},
}

labels["manner adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that indicate the manner, way or style in which an action is performed.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["modal adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} particles that express [[w:Linguistic modality|linguistic modality]], indicating the mood or attitude of the speaker with respect to what is being said.",
	parents = {"sentence adverbs"},
}

labels["modal particles"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} particles that reflect the mood or attitude of the speaker, without changing the basic meaning of the sentence.",
	parents = {"particles"},
}

labels["modal verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that indicate [[grammatical mood]].",
	parents = {"auxiliary verbs"},
}

labels["moieties"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pairs of abstract categories separating people and the environment.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["morphemes"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} word-elements used to form full words.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["multiword terms"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} lemmas that are an [[WT:CFI#Idiomaticity|idiomatic]] combination of multiple words.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["negative particles"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} particles that indicate negation.",
	parents = {{name = "particles", sort = "particles"}},
}

labels["negative pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that refer to negative or non-existent references.",
	parents = {"pronouns"},
}

labels["neuter nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that display grammatical relations associated with neither male nor female beings.",
	parents = {"nouns by gender"},
}

labels["neuter proper nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} proper nouns that display grammatical relations associated with neither male nor female beings.",
	parents = {"proper nouns"},
}

labels["neutral verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that indicate either or both an activity or a result of an activity",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["nominalized adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that are used as nouns.",
	parents = {"nouns", "adjectives"},
}

labels["non-constituents"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that are not grammatical [[constituent]]s, and therefore need to be combined with additional terms to form a complete phrase.",
	parents = {"phrases"},
}

-- This category should be used particularly in languages that have
-- grammatical distinctions related to men, such as Polish.
labels["nonvirile nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} plural nouns that refer to a group without male humans.",
	parents = {"nouns", "pluralia tantum"},
}

labels["noun prefixes"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prefixes attached to a noun that display its noun class.",
	parents = {"prefixes"},
}

labels["nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that indicate people, beings, things, places, phenomena, qualities or ideas.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["nouns by class"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns organized by the class they belong to.",
	parents = {{name = "nouns", sort = "class"}},
}

table.insert(handlers, function(label)
	local classnum, suffix = label:match("^class ([1-9][0-9]*)([a-z]*) nouns$")
	if classnum then
		return {
			description =
				"{{{langname}}} nouns that belong to class " .. classnum .. suffix .. ".",
			fundamental = "Lemmas subcategories by language",
			parents = {{
				name = "nouns by class",
				sort = ("#%02d"):format(classnum) .. suffix,
			}},
		}
	end
end)

labels["nouns by classifier"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns organized by the classifier they are used with.",
	parents = {{name = "nouns", sort = "classifier"}},
}

labels["nouns by gender"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns organized by the gender they belong to.",
	parents = {{name = "nouns", sort = "gender"}},
}

labels["nouns with multiple declensions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that follow more than one type of inflection.",
	parents = {"nouns by inflection type"},
}

for _, pos in ipairs { "nouns", "proper nouns" } do
	labels[pos .. " with unattested plurals"] = {
		description = "{{{langname}}} " .. pos .. " with unattested plurals.",
		parents = {pos},
	}
end

labels["numerals"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that quantify nouns.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["object concords"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} concords used to show the grammatical object.",
	parents = {"concords"},
}

labels["object pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that refer to grammatical objects.",
	parents = {"pronouns"},
}

labels["particles"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that do not belong to any of the inflected grammatical word classes, often lacking their own grammatical functions and forming other parts of speech or expressing the relationship between clauses.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["passive verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that are usually used in passive voice.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["perfective verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that express actions considered as completed events, as opposed to ongoing or continuous.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["personal nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that refer to humans.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["personal pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that are used as substitutes for known nouns.",
	parents = {"pronouns"},
}

labels["phrasal verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs accompanied by particles, such as prepositions and adverbs.",
	parents = {"verbs", "phrases"},
}

labels["phrasal prepositions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prepositions formed with combinations of other terms.",
	parents = {"prepositions", "phrases"},
}

labels["pluralia tantum"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that are mostly or exclusively used in the plural form.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["possessive adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that indicate ownership.",
	parents = {"adjectives"},
}

labels["possessive concords"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} concords used to show possession.",
	parents = {"concords"},
}

labels["possessive determiners"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} determiners that indicate ownership.",
	parents = {"determiners"},
}

labels["possessive pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that indicate ownership.",
	parents = {"pronouns"},
}

labels["postpositional phrases"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} phrases headed by a postposition.",
	parents = {"phrases", "postpositions"},
}

labels["postpositions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adpositions that are placed after their objects.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["predicatives"] = {
	description = "?",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["prefixes"] = {
	description = "Affixes attached to the beginning of {{{langname}}} words.",
	parents = {"morphemes"},
}

labels["prepositional phrases"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} phrases headed by a preposition.",
	parents = {"phrases", "prepositions"},
}

labels["prepositions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adpositions that are placed before their objects.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["ablative prepositions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prepositions that cause the succeeding noun to be in the ablative case.",
	parents = {"prepositions"},
}

labels["accusative prepositions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prepositions that cause the succeeding noun to be in the accusative case.",
	parents = {"prepositions"},
}

labels["dative prepositions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prepositions that cause the succeeding noun to be in the dative case.",
	parents = {"prepositions"},
}

labels["genitive prepositions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prepositions that cause the succeeding noun to be in the genitive case.",
	parents = {"prepositions"},
}

labels["instrumental prepositions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prepositions that cause the succeeding noun to be in the instrumental case.",
	parents = {"prepositions"},
}

labels["matrilineal moieties"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} moieties inherited from an individual's mother.",
	parents = {"moieties"},
}

labels["nominative prepositions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prepositions that cause the succeeding noun to be in the nominative case.",
	parents = {"prepositions"},
}

labels["patrilineal moieties"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} moieties inherited from an individual's father.",
	parents = {"moieties"},
}

labels["prepositional prepositions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prepositions that cause the succeeding noun to be in the prepositional case.",
	parents = {"prepositions"},
}

labels["preterite-present verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that inflect in the present tense like the past tense of strong verbs.",
	parents = {"irregular verbs"},
}

labels["prenouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prefixes of various kinds that are attached to nouns.",
	parents = {"prefixes"},
}

labels["preverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} prefixes of various kinds that are attached to verbs.",
	parents = {"prefixes"},
}

labels["pronominal adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that are formed by combining a pronoun with a preposition.",
	parents = {"adverbs", "prepositions", "pronouns"},
}

labels["pronominal concords"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} concords that are prefixed to pronominal stems.",
	parents = {"concords"},
}

labels["pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that refer to and substitute nouns.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["proper nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that indicate individual entities, such as names of persons, places or organizations.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["punctual adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that express a single point or span in time.",
	parents = {"time adverbs"},
}

labels["reciprocal pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that refer back to a plural subject and express an action done in two or more directions.",
	parents = {"pronouns", "personal pronouns"},
}

labels["reciprocal verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that indicate actions, occurrences or states directed from multiple subjects to each other.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["reflexive pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that refer back to the subject.",
	parents = {"pronouns", "personal pronouns"},
}

labels["reflexive verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that indicate actions, occurrences or states directed from the grammatical subjects to themselves.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["relational adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that stand in place of a noun when modifying another noun.",
	parents = {"adjectives"},
}

labels["relational nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns used to indicate a relation between other two nouns by means of possession.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["relative adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives used to indicate [[relative clause]]s.",
	parents = {"adjectives", {name = "relative pro-forms", sort = "adjectives"}},
}

labels["relative adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs used to indicate [[relative clause]]s.",
	parents = {"adverbs", {name = "relative pro-forms", sort = "adverbs"}},
}

labels["relative determiners"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} determiners used to indicate [[relative clause]]s.",
	parents = {"determiners", {name = "relative pro-forms", sort = "determiners"}},
}

labels["relative concords"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} concords that are prefixed to relative stems.",
	parents = {"concords"},
}

labels["relative pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns used to indicate [[relative clause]]s.",
	parents = {"pronouns", {name = "relative pro-forms", sort = "pronouns"}},
}

labels["relatives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that give attributes to nouns, acting grammatically as relative clauses.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

labels["resultative verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that indicate a result of some action",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["roots"] = {
	description = "Basic morphemes from which {{{langname}}} words are formed.",
	parents = {"morphemes"},
}

labels["semelfactive verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that are punctual (instantaneous, momentive), perfective (treated as a unitary whole with no explicit internal temporal structure), and telic (having a boundary out of which the activity cannot be said to have taken place or continue).",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["sentence adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that modify an entire clause or sentence.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["sequence adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} conjunctive adverbs that express sequence in space or time.",
	parents = {"conjunctive adverbs"},
}

labels["simple intransitive verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs where the ''ل'' is dropped and ''ېږ'' replaces ''ېد'' in the present tense.",
	parents = {"simple verbs"},
}

labels["simple verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} simple verbs.",
	parents = {"verbs", "verbs by inflection type"},
}

labels["singularia tantum"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that are mostly or exclusively used in the singular form.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["stative verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that define a state through means of a verb.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["stems"] = {
	description = "Morphemes from which {{{langname}}} words are formed.",
	parents = {"morphemes"},
}

labels["strong verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that present different stem vowels in their typically regular conjugated forms.",
	parents = {"verbs by inflection type"},
}

labels["subordinating conjunctions"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} conjunctions that indicate relations of syntactic dependence between connected items.",
	parents = {"conjunctions"},
}

labels["subject concords"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} concords used to show the grammatical subject.",
	parents = {"concords"},
}

labels["subject pronouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} pronouns that refer to grammatical subjects.",
	parents = {"pronouns"},
}

labels["suffixes"] = {
	description = "Affixes attached to the end of {{{langname}}} words.",
	parents = {"morphemes"},
}

labels["suppletive adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that have inflected forms from different roots.",
	parents = {"irregular adjectives"},
}

labels["suppletive adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that have inflected forms from different roots.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["suppletive nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that have inflected forms from different roots.",
	parents = {"irregular nouns"},
}

labels["suppletive verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} irregular verbs that have conjugated forms from different roots.",
	parents = {"irregular verbs"},
}

labels["time adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that indicate time.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["transfixes"] = {
	description = "Discontinuous affixes inserted within a word root.",
	parents = {"morphemes"},
}

labels["transitive verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that indicate actions, occurrences or states directed to one or more grammatical objects.",
	parents = {"verbs"},
}

labels["uncomparable adjectives"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adjectives that are not inflected to display different degrees of comparison.",
	parents = {"adjectives"},
}

labels["uncomparable adverbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} adverbs that are not inflected to display different degrees of comparison.",
	parents = {"adverbs"},
}

labels["uncountable nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns that indicate qualities, ideas, unbounded mass or other abstract concepts that cannot be quantified directly by numerals.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["verbal nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} nouns morphologically related to a verb and similar to it in meaning.",
	parents = {"nouns"},
}

labels["verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} terms that indicate actions, occurrences or states.",
	parents = {"lemmas"},
}

-- This category should be used particularly in languages that have
-- grammatical distinctions related to men, such as Polish.
labels["virile nouns"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} plural nouns that refer to a group with at least one male human.",
	parents = {"nouns", "pluralia tantum"},
}

labels["weak verbs"] = {
	description = "{{{langname}}} verbs that display dental suffixes in their past tense conjugated forms.",
	parents = {"verbs by inflection type"},
}


-- Add "POS-forming suffixes".
local poses_derived_by_suffix = {
	"adjective", "adverb", "noun", "verb",
}

for _, pos in pairs(poses_derived_by_suffix) do
	labels[pos .. "-forming suffixes"] = {
		description = "{{{langname}}} suffixes that are used to derive " .. pos .. "s from other words.",
		parents = {"derivational suffixes"},
	}
end


-- Add "POS by inflection type", "irregular POS" and "POS by tone"
-- categories for (potentially) inflected parts of speech.

local inflected_poses = {
	"adjectives",
	"adverbs",
	"determiners",
	"nouns",
	"numerals",
	"participles",
	"pronouns",
	"proper nouns",
	"verbs",
}

for _, pos in ipairs(inflected_poses) do
	labels[pos .. " by inflection type"] = {
		description = "{{{langname}}} " .. pos .. " organized by the type of inflection they follow.",
		parents = {{name = pos, sort = "inflection"}},
	}

	labels["irregular " .. pos] = {
		description = "{{{langname}}} " .. pos .. " that follow non-standard patterns of inflection.",
		parents = {pos .. " by inflection type"},
	}

	labels[pos .. " by tone"] = {
		description = "{{{langname}}} " .. pos .. " organized by the tone they follow.",
		parents = {{name = pos .. " by inflection type", sort = "tone"}},
	}
end

local labels2 = {}

-- Add "reconstructed" subcategories; add 'fundamental' key if not
-- already present.
for key, data in pairs(labels) do
	labels2[key] = data
	if not data.fundamental then
		data.fundamental = "Lemmas subcategories by language"
	end
	labels2["reconstructed " .. key] = {
		description = "{{{langname}}} " .. key .. "  that have been linguistically [[Wiktionary:Reconstructed terms|reconstructed]].",
		fundamental = "Lemmas subcategories by language",
		parents = {key, {name = "reconstructed terms", sort = key}}
	}
end

return {LABELS = labels2, HANDLERS = handlers}

-- For Vim, so we get 4-space tabs
-- vim: set ts=4 sw=4 noet: